The following resource is one of the better illustrations I know of the widespread use and framing of the Process Arts, in this case using the rubruic "dialogue and deliberation".

from :

The National Coalition for Dialogue and Deliberation

NCDD's Engagement Streams Framework

Bibliographic Details:
Sandy Heierbacher and other members of the D&D community. National Coalition for Dialogue & Deliberation (NCDD), 2005.


NCDD’s Engagement Streams Framework helps people decide which dialogue and deliberation method(s) are most appropriate for their circumstance. The framework is a series of two charts that categorize the D&D field into four streams based on intention or purpose (Exploration, Conflict Transformation, Decision Making, and Collaborative Action), and show which of the most well-known methods have proven themselves effective in which streams. The second chart goes into more detail about 23 dialogue and deliberation methods, and includes information such as group size, meeting type and how participants are selected.
external image Streams_image.jpg
Sandy Heierbacher initially developed this resource to help inform workshops she presented in October 2005 with Tonya Gonzalez (at Study Circles' national conference) and Jan Elliott (at the Canadian Conference on Dialogue & Deliberation), and a beginner's toolkit that NCDD is in the process of developing. Feel free to use this data, and to contribute to this ongoing effort.
The framework depicted in these charts helps people navigate the range of dialogue and deliberation approaches that are available to them and make design choices that are appropriate for their circumstance and resources. Although it was designed for beginners to these processes, the tool also helps more seasoned D&D practitioners understand where their own experience resides on the continuum, and which methods they may want to learn more about depending on the needs of their clients and communities.
This framework built on some previous attempts to categorize or describe the public engagement and conflict transformation fields. All of the scholars and practitioners whose work was utilized to develop this framework (Barnett Pearce, Hal Saunders, Patricia Wilson, Tom Atlee, Matt Leighninger, Archon Fung, etc.) were contacted for their feedback on the charts. Many of them provided ongoing feedback as we developed the charts.
NCDD's Engagement Streams Framework was featured in the May 2006 issue of IAP2's Participation Quarterly publication. It was featured in a book published by the United Nations Development Programme called Democratic Dialogue: A Handbook for Practitioners, and is described in Sandy Heierbacher's chapter on D&D in the 2nd Edition of The Change Handbook. It has also been used by numerous D&D practitioners to help community leaders and public managers understand their options.

Here are all the different

documents you can download

The PDF version of the Engagement Streams Framework (recommended)

We spiffed up the original streams charts to make them more readable and easier on the eyes. This 9-page document provides a one-page introduction to the framework, a two-page overview of the four streams of practice, and 6 pages detailing the D&D methods. A Numbers (mac) version of this document is also available - just email for a copy.

The Excel version of the Engagement Streams Framework

This is the original format, which provides two straightforward charts on two separate tabs. To ensure legibility, it should be printed out on 8.5 x 14" paper. The Excel version has been updated to include all 23 methods, and to include active links to more information about each method.

One-Page ComicLife Diagram of the Four Streams of Practice

This fun handout (pictured above) provides a snapshot of the four streams of practice - Exploration, Conflict Transformation, Decision-Making, and Collaborative Action. It introduces the purpose for using each stream and lists some of the dialogue and deliberation methods that have proven themselves to be effective in each stream.

4-Page Accompanying Handout

We like to provide people with this additional handout when we present the framework at conferences and meetings. The handout lists the methods included in the Engagement Streams framework and directs people to the best place online to learn more about the model, get assistance, or obtain training in the method.

This framework is continually updated and improved, so please let us know how you think we can improve the charts by emailing
Resource Link:
Categories: Dialogue, Deliberation & Deliberative Democracy, D&D Community / Movement, Conflict Transformation & Peacebuilding, Collaborative Problem-Solving & Governance, Interest Areas, Planning Phase, Facets of D&D Work, Main Category

Topics: Tools That Make Sense of the Field, Great Tools & Resources for Public Managers, Great Handouts, Tools for D&D and Collaboration, Resources and Services of Note for NCDDers, NCDD Resources, Main Meta Category

Dialogue and Deliberation Films